See Schreyer et al. Developing countries are already accounting for a large part of Internet users. Figure 3. Internet Market Size and Growth. Number of Internet users , and new Internet users added between and right in developed and developing economies worldwide. Figure 4. Numbers of Internet users and number of countries connected to the Internet.
High Quality Messaging and Electronic Commerce: Technical Foundations, Standards and Protocols
Figure 5. Number of Internet users, by income and by region, ICTs, and in particular the Internet, can contribute to achieving internationally agreed-to development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration  , as they can help to achieve goals of employment and entrepreneurship, poverty reduction, health, education, gender equality, and good governance. The development community has focused on ICT impacts on development objectives such as health, education, e-governance, information-exchange, livelihoods and empowerment.
For instance, Internet-based applications have been used to deliver information-related services to citizens, and to health and social service providers. Moreover, an adequate ICT infrastructure is viewed as a key ingredient to decrease transaction costs and reinforce economies of scale in other sectors.
In addition to participating in productive capital accumulation by providing services that participate in productive activity information, communication, management, etc. A fundamental requirement for widespread national Internet access is an efficient telecommunications sector. Experience from OECD countries as well as non-OECD countries has shown that this is best achieved through vibrant competition, strongly affected by the necessary presence of policies and regulatory environments that enable market-based operators to develop access infrastructure.
Government awareness and support of telecommunications and ICT sector initiatives are essential, in order to mobilise the resources necessary to define ICT policy and objectives, in particular. Countries seem to be taking action: over 90 countries have or are in the process of developing national ICT for development strategies, establishing national multi-stakeholder ownership and priority areas for intervention.
Along with policy, effective pro-competitive regulation and the creation of a credible independent regulator are key to enable market-based development. In parallel, removing domestic obstacles to the growth and development of Internet is valuable. Policies have in many countries enabled market growth by removing barriers and removing restrictions on competitive entry by ICT companies. These have included allowing IP telephony, liberalising VSAT ground stations to connect with communications satellites, setting up nation-wide local call tariffs or flat rate local calling for Internet dial-up, providing easy market entry and interconnection for ISPs, or enabling direct access to international bandwidth.
In many countries, these initial steps have enabled private entrepreneurs to start offering public Internet services. Conversely, unfair provisioning practices or local call and leased line rates that are artificially high in markets with insufficient competition often keep Internet rates high. Basic infrastructure, content and skills include national Internet eXchange Points IXPs , Internet points-of-presence POPs , relevant local applications and content, as well as education and training in the use of information technology. Internet access depends on telecommunication connectivity that underpins the network.
The viability and prices of Internet Service Providers depend not only on enabling domestic policies, but also on the structure and competitiveness of the international bandwidth markets. Competitive forces, when permitted, have driven prices down. Indeed, as Internet traffic has increased, significant changes have taken place in the routing of traffic.
As increased competition emerged in backbone markets, commercial networks diversified and entire regions are now better connected . Whole areas of Asia, as well as some in Africa, now benefit from increased direct connectivity reducing costs significantly. In the process, competition between international backbone providers triggered increasingly numerous commercial solutions for the development and exchange of bandwidth between telecommunication bandwidth providers for example by partnering with carriers in other regions or by swapping capacity.
In addition, prices for IP transit services have fallen sharply, as shown in Figure 6 . Prices in Asia have declined at a comparable rate, though they still remain much higher than European and U.
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Figure 6. Monthly Price for international bandwidth and bandwidth growth. Source : PriMetrica, Box 2. New entrants with regional strategies. The OECD Communications Outlook documented the sale of assets, in the post bubble environment, as firms restructured or exited the industry. In many cases these sales were realised at a fraction of the original investment.
Most recently Tyco sold its undersea cable network. Significantly, many of these sales have brought new players with their own facilities into international markets for the first time. In other cases companies such as Telmex and Telefonica purchased assets to complement their regional strategies. As a result the international market for telecommunications continues to be extremely competitive.
The current situation is very different from the monopoly environment where leased lines and half circuits were available only from one point to another. During the initial time KIXP was in operation the latency was reduced from on average to milli-seconds previously, to 60 to 80 milli-seconds. Figure 7.
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ICTs offer many developing countries opportunities for technological leapfrogging in connectivity. For example, large geographic areas can avoid the heavy investment in copper-based infrastructure and invest directly in wireless technology-based communication systems. The GSM base station towers are potential hubs for broadband wireless systems . Technology developments open new possibilities for regions with poor connectivity to leapfrog stages of development, by, for example, entering the broadband phase via wireless solutions.
Wireless local area networks WLAN , commonly referred to as Wi-Fi, are a good example of a low-cost, robust technology for broadband enabling telephony and high-speed Internet that provides an opportunity to leapfrog expensive, wireline broadband cable or DSL , in places such as the remote villages of Nepal . To extend incumbent infrastructure, traditionally wireline telecommunications infrastructures , new wireless technologies can, if policy permits, enable infrastructure extension at a significantly lower cost compared, for example, to that of building out expensive copper-lines.
For instance, Wireless Local Loop WLL technology is a very low deployment cost technology that employs standardised cellular or low-mobility infrastructure and terminals.
IoT Protocols Background
The purpose of this section is to show that the Internet has undergone significant transformation from its early developments to its present stage of commercialisation where market-based rules dominate. The Internet started in the s as the creation of a small group of dedicated researchers and has grown to be a widespread commercial information infrastructure with tremendous influence on economies and societies. Figure 8. Simplified chronology of Internet technical coordination structures. Phase 1: Early developments until the s. The technical foundations for the Internet were developed by computer science researchers that collaborated closely from the late s onwards.
ARPA first demonstrated the viability of packet switching for computer-to-computer communication in its flagship network, the ARPANET, which linked several dozen sites, mainly universities, into a national network for computer science research. His idea was that an open architecture would be able to connect multiple independent networks, each network itself having a different operating system and design.
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Desktop computers could be connected using a compact and simple implementation of TCP, which was fully interoperable with other TCPs. New technologies and management structures were needed, as the original ARPANET model of a few networks with a small number of time-shared hosts expanded into having many networks constituting the Internet LANs, workstations, and personal computers. In the early s, the existing Internet protocol supported a very limited number of IP addresses. Box 4. The increase in scale of the Internet and the large number of independently managed networks, including LANs, was making it increasingly difficult to maintain a centralised table to translate user-friendly host names into numeric IP addresses.
The DNS was conceived as a scalable distributed mechanism to resolve user-friendly host names e. Root servers replicate the root, and provide information enabling resolvers to find details of the level below, known as the Top Level Domains TLDs which are the last label on the right hand-side of the domain name. Beginning in , the IAB arranged workshops for equipment vendors and the initial research community to exchange knowledge. These exchanges yielded increasingly interoperable equipment on the market.
By the mid s, Internet was well established as a technology amongst computer researchers and developers. However, many alternate networks and networking technologies were being pursued, in the public sector, and also in the commercial sector. NSF also identified the need for Wide Area Network infrastructure to support the general academic and research community, and, importantly, the need to develop a strategy to grow this infrastructure ultimately independently of direct federal funding.
In the early s, the NSF pursued a strategy to commercialise the Internet backbone. On the one hand, it encouraged commercial traffic at the local and regional level by enabling the regional networks of the NSFNET to take on commercial customers, and thereby lower subscription costs for all. Hence, the Internet Society ISOC was founded in as an international professional membership organisation of Internet experts that comments on policies and practices for global coordination and co-operation on the Internet.
As the Internet expanded, increasing portions of the administrative responsibilities were moved from the DoD to the NSF, which created the InterNIC in to consolidate existing practices for domain name registration and publication of information. This was in part because the US-centric Internet backbones were developed earlier and had more content and services. In addition, it was often cheaper for ISPs to exchange traffic via dedicated lines to the US because of the reticence and rents imposed by incumbent telecommunication monopolies in many countries.
Since then, as increased competition has emerged in backbone markets, commercial networks have diversified and entire regions are better connected . The World Wide Web Consortium W3C was created in as an international industry consortium to develop common protocols that promote the evolution of the World-Wide Web and ensure its interoperability.
The dynamism was enhanced by a number of structural factors, including: continuous development of higher speed, lower-cost computers; related increases in the power of virtually all electronic devices; rapid expansion of networks; and accelerated distribution of digital applications over a broadening range of economic sectors . The WWW browser war, fought primarily between Netscape and Microsoft at the time, triggered significant software developments. Charging for domain names : The development of commercial browsers also led to an explosive growth in the demand for.
In late , responding to the quantity of Web-motivated and sometimes speculative domain name registrations, the National Science Foundation NSF authorised the private company in charge of registering domain names, Network Solutions, Inc. Meanwhile, most ccTLD registries in other countries had already instituted charges for domain names.
Registration of domain names within a few top-level domains. After the proliferation of PCs and the Internet at the end of the s, the current decade is evolving towards converged platforms supporting broadband Internet, voice and entertainment content and increasingly, mobile and wireless networking. This section provides an overview of market developments since at different levels of the industry: i at the supporting infrastructure level; ii at the supporting protocol level; and iii at the internet resource management level.
Incumbents digitalised telecommunication networks and diversified into long distance, Internet services, and backbone network provision. Globally, telecommunication operators in liberalised markets have begun a process of converting their networks and infrastructures from circuit-switched architectures to IP-based architectures, to support new data and communications applications such as VoIP. There is now an expanding upturn, particularly in the United States and in hard-hit segments . The digitisation of communications enables ICT infrastructure operators to provide voice, data and broadcasting over several different types of networks.
Telecommunication operators, wireless operators, and cable providers have been pursuing the same triple play bundling strategy for consumers — bundling fixed voice, television services, and broadband Internet access. More recently, wireless, both fixed and mobile, is being integrated into this bundle . The compelling reason behind the formation of IPv6 was lack of address space, and increasing the number of IP addresses  to bit addresses. Since the introduction of Classless Inter-domain Routing CIDR  or Network Address Translators NATs  , IP address space scarcity is less of an immediate concern, and other drivers for IPv6 adoption include its better support for new uses such as real-time applications mobility, quality of service , and enhanced security features — including authentication and privacy.
Given the scale of the transition, IPV6 is only partially implemented due to the cost in hardware and software, and especially, the time worldwide transition takes. Global implementation is dependant on IPV6 adoption by the entire worldwide pool of networks, computers and equipment since in the meantime, networks that implement IPV6 have to coexist with IPV4 networks. Standards work is underway in standards bodies including the ITU and the IETF to further the integration and interoperability of IP-based networks with the public switched telephone and mobile networks.
ENUM was developed to enable users to find services on the Internet using only a telephone number, and for telephones, which have an input mechanism limited to twelve keys on a keypad, to be used to access Internet services. While English remains the leading language of e-commerce Figure 9, left , there is increasing development of content and e-commerce capabilities in other languages to support the large non-English language populations that are coming online Figure 9, right.
In this context, for the widespread growth of the Internet, many deem it crucial that non-English language populations be able to use domain names in their own languages. Figure 9. Language of e-commerce, and language populations on the Internet. IDN resolution is based on the distribution of client software and does not modify the server side operation.
Deploying IDN and developing improved multilingual standards will require significant global coordination. The management of Internet resources is, as the network itself, spread out with a number of different organisations handling different aspects. In the mids, the continued growth of demand for domain names placed strains on the Domain Name System DNS management, as what had been primarily technical issues became political, legal, and economic problems that attracted high-level official attention. Login Forgot your password?
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Do you have any questions or expertise about SOAP to share? Sound off here. SOAP is a specification in the web services used for exchanging structured information. It uses XML information set for the format of its messages. Three characteristics of SOAP define its advantages. These are extensibility, neutrality, and independence. It can operate on any transport protocol and supports any programming model. Or is this a misunderstanding of what the two types of API services provide and are implemented?
I do not have experience in SOAP protocol however i am interested in hearing some performance case studies where mil of small messages have been transmitted from many devices to another. Also keen to hear about Veretax previous question about some standard security measurements taken.
Is there some knowledgeable expert on board? Why it is called simple object access protocol? And when is it needed application on SOAP? This article may give interesting perspectives on SOAP vs. REST argument, look here. In the latter case the routing table has to hold the necessary information to construct the IP header, but if the IP network would be doing address translation a similar amount of information would need to be held in any case. Thus with Flexilink a single hardware implementation is able to support multiple addressing schemes including both IPv4 and IPv6.
Almost every packet on a digital network is part of a "flow", a sequence of packets from the same source to the same destination. These flows are of two types:. We can think of the former as "AV" flows and of the latter as "IT" flows.
For many applications, AV flows are sensitive to "latency", which is the time between a packet being transmitted by the sender and received at its destination; in a phone call, for example, longer delays make it difficult to have a natural conversation. New applications proposed for 5G, such as those involving augmented or virtual reality, or tactile feedback, will have even more severe requirements. For IT flows, if latency is important at all it will be the average over time that matters, whereas for AV flows it is the delay for the slowest packet.
Current-generation networks were originally designed as IT networks, carrying IT flows, and have had various features added to assist AV flows, which increase complexity but still do not provide the best service for these flows. While New Radio allows more bits to be carried, by some estimates half of those bits are unnecessary overhead.
These flows are of two types: they either carry a continuous stream of data such as an audio or video signal or transfer information between processes running in computers, as in a TCP session We can think of the former as "AV" flows and of the latter as "IT" flows.
Read More. Modernising the way packets are forwarded.
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