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Students learned how the strategies would affect performance, and how to modify the strategies for specific tasks. Opportunities to practice were given in the form of homework assignments.

This approach was compared to the process approach drafting, revising, proofreading, and editing, and publishing in which students were given frequent opportunities to write, mini-lessons in critical writing skills, teacher-peer conferencing sessions, regular occasions for sharing and publishing, all of which took place in the context of a community of writers.

The study concluded that writing performance could be improved by teaching specific strategies that engaged students in metacognitive behaviors for the purpose of planning. Englert et. The POSSE Predict, Organize, Search, Summarize, Evaluate strategy focused on metacognitive behaviors in addition to incorporating the socio-cultural component of knowing, through cognitive apprenticeships. KWL what we know, what we want to find out, what we learned and still need to learn sought to activate prior knowledge, set a purpose for reading, and summarizing text with a minimal amount of dialogue shared between teacher and student.

Although, these two interventions, POSSE and KWL differed in dialogic nature, each strategy has had a powerful impact on student comprehension of text. The model was adapted from the work of several researchers focusing on cognitive behavioral interventions, coupled with Socratic dialogue, socio-cultural constraints, metacognitive activities, and strategy acquisition. SRSD aids students in organizing their thoughts in addition to addressing issues of self-efficacy, which are often prevalent among low performing students Wong et al, p The CRL approach to strategy instruction was categorized as a combination approach in that the strategy concentrated on repairing inefficient heuristics, maintaining the integrity of the curriculum, employing metacognitive processes, and supplying appropriate scaffolds.

The actual model was comprised of eight instructional procedures: a pretest and make acquisition commitments; b describe; c model; d verbal practice; e controlled practice and feedback; f advanced practice and feedback; g posttest and make generalization comments; and h generalization. The use of the CRL method supports the growing body of research that suggests low-achieving students can be competitive in general education settings, when introduced to direct strategy instruction.

Often students are able to generalize their strategy instruction to standardized testing situations. This is important in content area assessments, where reading and writing can provide specific challenges. In the area of science, inquiry-based pedagogy tends to foster success among all students, which is in direct contrast to standardized testing methods that usually measure only basic skills. Science concepts are often disguised as a bevy of reading and writing activities, which when presented alone do not improve overall student achievement.

the new accountability high schools and high stakes testing Manual

Low- performing students who may have found success through actively participating in authentic activities, are once again confronted with failure when high-stakes testing is added to the equation Jorgenson, Districts and teachers are pressured to improve student achievement in content areas, making it necessary to find viable instructional practices that will work to decrease the achievement gap. Since strategy based instruction has been shown to improve literacy among low-performing students, it would be feasible to look towards direct strategy instruction to support inquiry- based learning.

In doing so, students would be provided with an integrated approach to learning that utilizes metacognitive behaviors, in addition to cognitive apprenticeship to improve literacy learning transfer. The work of Palincsar examines this delicate balance between cognition and contemporary reforms. Teachers and small groups of students participated in two forms of investigation.

The first form allowed students to explore phenomena using the scientific method of investigation. The second allowed students to research different perspectives of the same investigation by consulting text. The teacher scaffolded learning by 1 monitoring and facilitating student thinking, 2 supporting print literacy, and 3 improving working groups. Researchers found that through these cognitive apprenticeships low-performing students were able to access other areas of the curriculum, which under other circumstances may not have been possible.

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For the past 30 years, a behaviorist perspective has dominated literacy in testing, while pedagogy continues to be influenced by cognitive and socio-cultural perspectives. Instruction has embraced educational practices that support implicit knowledge; while testing has continued to view knowledge as atomized bits of information that can be easily assessed through external measures. Accountability and high-stakes testing will continue to be debated for years to come. However, researchers must continue to conduct empirical studies that will integrate best practices with educational reform policies Shepard, p.

Accountability and access to opportunity: mutually exclusive tenets under a high-stakes testing mandate Preventing School Failure, 47 2 , Anderson, Charles W. David, and Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan Canonical and sociocultural approaches to reform in science education: the story of Juan and his group. Elementary School Journal, 97 , Aper, Jeffrey Steerage from a distance: can mandated accountability systems really improve schools? The Journal of Educational Thought, 36, 1 Are standards preventing good teaching? Blake, Mary E. Helping linguistically diverse students share what they know.

The New Accountability: High Schools and High Stakes Testing

Journal of Adult and Adolescent Literacy, Blum, Robert E. Peobody Journal of Education, 75 , 4 Bangert- Downs, Robert L. Review of Educational Research, 74, 1 Cohen, Vicki. Journal of Research on Computing in Education , 33, 4 , Crockett, Jean B. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37, 3 Englert, Carol S. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 3 Flowers, Elaine V. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39, 9 Gersten, Russell, Fuchs, Lynn S. Review of Educational Research, 71, 2 Harding, Carol G. Urban Education, 36, 4 Hargrove, Tracy Y.

Hiebert, Elfrieda, Raphael, Taffy E. Handbook of Educational Psychology pp Holloway, John H. Educational Leadership, 59, 1 Hombo, Catherine M. Theory into Practice, 42, 1 Horn, Catherine High-stakes testing and students stopping or perpetuating a cycle of failure? Theory into Practice, 42 1, Ingram, Debra, Louis, Karen S. Jones, M. Gail, Jones, Brett D.

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Phi Delta Kappan, 81, 3 Educational Psychologist, 36, 2 McCleery, Jennifer A. Remedial and Special Education, 20, 1 Maki, Hanna S. Learning Disability Quarterly, v25 pp Palincsar, A. Sullivan Social constructivist perspectives on teaching and learning. Annual Review of Psychology, v 45 Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan Keeping the metaphor of scaffoldong fresh- a response to C. The Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31, 4 Learning Disability Quarterly, 24, 1 Pugh, Kevin J. Teachers College Record, , 6 Schumaker, Jean B.

Learning Disability Quarterly, v26, pp. Troia, Gary A. Graham, Steve The effectiveness of a highly explicit, teacher-directed strategy instruction routine: Changing the writing performance of students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 4 VonSecker, Clare E. The Journal of Educational Research, 95, 3 Current Research Interests. At present, the purpose of my research as a doctoral candidate would be to investigate the impact of the social cognitive aspects of current educational reform policies, and the effects of culture on student achievement.

Culture would be defined through examining the sociometric relationships which exist in the context of a special education learning community, in addition to exploring parenting styles, as a definitive framework for parental involvement, as each relates to student achievement. Student achievement would be measured in terms of adequate yearly progress of those districts participating in state standardized testing programs. Information, which aids educators in determining those best practices which align curriculum to the individualization of instruction, are critical to overall student achievement.

Teacher accountability is instrumental in achieving adequate yearly progress, in addition to, parental involvement. Culture, as well as, the daily interactions of parents, and children is such a vital component of the educational process. My additional areas of interest include the concept of self- motivation, and reform policies in general.

In the area of motivation, I would like to research pedagogy that would translate into increased student achievement based upon theories of intrinsic motivation.

On the School Board's Resolution on Accountabilty and Excessive High-Stakes Testing

It would be interesting to complete a comparison study of the two models, particularly, in an elementary setting in the area of science. In the area of reform, I am most interested in the development and implementation of reform policies. Education has always been closely aligned with the political climate of the country. It would be fascinating to conduct research that purely examines the efficacious nature of reform, and how reform effects the dynamics of the individual stakeholders who must adhere to the policies.

One other research interests would include the benefits of inclusionary practices. Some research has surfaced that implies that the least restrictive environment, as it is currently defined, should be reevaluated to examine the true outcomes in relationship to free and appropriate public education. Meaningful socialization may not be taking place, in addition to the lack of individualization of class work required by the IEP in many instances due to issues of expertise on the part of the teacher.

As the semester comes to an end, I find that my actual interests have not actually changed. Teacher accountability reforms have made this an important component of my instructional practices. Annotated Bibliography.


  • Retention and High-Stakes Testing - IDRA;
  • Negative effects of high-stakes testing on curricula and instruction.
  • Modernity and Malaysia: Settling the Menraq Forest Nomads (The Modern Anthropology of Southeast Asia).
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The body of research on reading comprehension is reviewed along with the instructional strategies for improving reading comprehension. Researchers concluded that increased use of socially mediated instruction and teaching multiple strategies improves student comprehension. The study also supports the premise that explicit instruction of the strategy is most effective. This is important to my research question because the study suggested methods to improve comprehension with expository text, which may prove to be helpful in designing my intervention.

Researchers found that examination of text structures aids students in asking relevant questions. Proficient self-questioning leads to understanding and increased metacognition. These skills are necessary for improving student achievement on standardized tests. Text laden documents often present a challenge for low-achieving students, which creates another barrier to success.

This article examines the application of standardized testing and the effects on students. Findings suggest that non-White, non-Asian students as well as students with special needs are among the groups most deeply affected by high-stakes testing. Researchers believe that this form of testing is limited and has potential adverse effects.

This article is relevant to my research interests because it exposes hidden disparities within the data of high-stakes testing, and acknowledges the negative impact of curriculum changes in order to meet the needs of test defined objectives. This is an underlying issue which creates the need to address the skills being presented on standardized tests.

Thus, it supports the need for interventions to raise student achievement. Peer reviewed Download full text. Bush, calls for percent proficiency in reading and mathematics by This Federal mandate has caused all public schools in the United States to examine the programs in use to meet these requirements. In addition, states across the country have implemented a series of….

Under The No Child Left Behind act, beginning mathematics teachers in New York City find themselves at the crossroad of multi-level educational policies that span the different domains of the teaching profession, from the recruitment and support process to accountability, standards and assessment requirements, to pedagogical models and the….

Direct link. A little-discussed aspect of the No Child Left Behind Act NCLB is a mandate that requires failing schools to hire after-school tutoring companies--the largest of which are private, for-profit corporations--and to pay them with federal funds. Koyama, Jill P. To examine the ways in which high schools in New York City attend to second language acquisition is to consider everyday actions in schools, government dealings, localized policy responses, and disparate discourses on bilingualism.

It is to position the circumstances of learning and teaching English in an American high school within the problems…. This study examines trends in Black student achievement and in the Black-White achievement gap over the period to , employing data from ten states drawn from the NAEP Grade 8 mathematics assessments. Results are obtained for three levels of aggregation: the state, school poverty stratum within the state, and schools within poverty….

In the wake of the federal No Child Left Behind legislation, standardized tests have become increasingly high-stakes. Yet English language learners ELLs typically score far below native English speakers, creating pressure to "teach to the test. Critical Education Policy and Politics 1. This book examines the changes in educational policy in the U. The author contends that education in the States and Britain has been significantly transformed, through efforts to create curricular standards, increased emphasis on accountability measured by standardized tests, and efforts to introduce….

Under the curricular and pedagogical impositions of scripted lessons and mandated curriculum, patterns associated nationwide with high-stakes testing, the No Child Left Behind Act of , and the phenomenon known as the "narrowing of curriculum," new teachers in New York City NYC find their personal and professional identity thwarted,…. Over the last decade education in the United States has undergone perhaps its most significant transformation. Where in the past public schools have been primarily under the control of the local community, control has shifted to the state and federal levels.

Furthermore, state and federal governments have introduced standardized testing and…. Download full text. Nichols, Sharon L. Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of NCLB , standardized test scores are the indicator used to hold schools and school districts accountable for student achievement. Each state is responsible for constructing an accountability system, attaching consequences--or stakes--for student performance.

The theory of action implied by this…. Since last 5 years. Since last 10 years. Since last 20 years. Federal Legislation. Educational Policy. Educational Legislation. Academic Achievement. Educational Change. Standardized Tests. Politics of Education. Urban Schools. Teacher Attitudes. English Second Language. Second Language Learning. Achievement Gains. African American Students.

Bilingual Education. Case Studies. Equal Education. Federal Government. Grade 8. Mathematics Achievement. National Standards. Policy Analysis. Forum on Public Policy Online. Bilingual Research Journal. British Educational Research…. Critical Studies in Education. Education Policy Analysis…. Education Policy Research Unit. Educational Administration….