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Why would a young boy risk his acceptance to Harvard to pile manure into a school gym? These questions meant studying the roots of identity, and how a person could be at peace with being hateful and even dangerous.

Freud's Theory of the Id in Psychology

Now, decades later, an emerging explanation points to something more insidious than the possibility that someone simply identifies with a malicious group or blindly follows a toxic person. Instead, out of a basic need for consistency, we might take on other identities as our own.

It asserts that we tend to prefer to be seen by others as we see ourselves, even in areas where we see ourselves negatively. As opposed to cognitive dissonance—the psychological unease that drives people to alter their interpretation of the world to create a sense of consistency—self-verification says that we try to bring reality into harmony with our long-standing beliefs about ourselves. Swann has noted that people with negative self-views tend to withdraw or flee from romantic partners who treat them too well.

They maintain a sense of continuity and order. Stable self-views also, ideally, help facilitate relationships and group dynamics.

How Can I Locate the Main Idea?

When people know their role in any particular dynamic, they predictably play the part, even when doing so is self-destructive. Self-views seem to have their basis in how others treat us, and they solidify as we accept our position and behave to further warrant similar treatment. An overall sense of identity comes together like a patchwork quilt of group and self, defined by where we fit into the world.

How to find the main idea and supporting details - reading skills for beginners

Sometimes we bond especially strongly with some of our associations, such as family, a military group, or a religion. Even in cases of extreme identification, however, people typically maintain a sense of their own identity.

Understanding Design Concept Identification | SpringerLink

There is a distinct conceptual border between self and other. You are a part of the team, and you are you.


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Occasionally, though, this border becomes permeable. Over the past decade, a new conceptualization has gained attention. A willingness to die—and to kill thousands of others in the process—goes beyond simple allegiance. He reasoned that these people had essentially taken on the group identity as their own.

One way researchers test for fusion is to ask people to draw a circle that represents themselves, and a circle that represents another person or group. Usually people draw overlapping circles, Dovidio explains. In fusion, people draw themselves entirely inside the other circle.

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Arguments about climate change, for example, might not actually be about climate change, and instead about people protecting their basic sense of order and consistency. But fusion offers a framework that involves an ordered thought process. It is thought of as distinct from blind obedience often assumed to be the case in cults and military violence , in which a person might follow orders and torture a prisoner, either unquestioningly or out of fear for personal safety.

Engaged followers do so of their own volition, with enthusiasm. Read: What your politics do to your morals.

Introduction to Kenneth Burke

Fusion is not a bunch of individuals contorting their way of thinking, but a bunch of individuals suspending their way of thinking. Identity fusion might be a new name for a timeless phenomenon, but Swann and others find it helpful as part of an explanation for current social divides. Swann believes that the political landscape accounts for growing interest in the concept, and that better understanding how and why fusion happens could have serious global consequences.

The fusion might explain some apparent contradictions in ideology, Dovidio says. Even people who typically identify as advocates of small or no government might endorse acts of extreme authoritarianism if they have fused with Trump. For refugees, identification is a key source of protection, and an opportunity to participate and contribute to their host community. Over solutions were submitted from 54 countries from academics, entrepreneurs, scientists, and technologists.

Six finalists were selected to pitch their solutions live to a packed audience and a panel of expert judges at World Bank Headquarters. Makhtar Diop, World Bank Vice President for Infrastructure, announced that the winner of Mission Billion was Simprints , for its open source toolkit that uses audio messages during registration to help people provide meaningful informed consent and to understand how their data is going to be used. And tied for third place was Blockcerts , which is an open standard that empowers people with control over sharing and verifying their documents and credentials, and Sthan , which replaces postal addresses with a privacy-protecting reimagination of what it means to physically locate a person or place.

Moving forward, ID4D will work with the winner, runners up and other teams to further develop their ideas and identify options for pilots and implementation. ID4D is a cross sectoral initiative that works closely with countries and partners to enable all people to exercise their rights and to access services, including to provide identification to the estimated 1 billion people currently without one.

ID4D has three pillars of activity: country and regional engagement; thought leadership; and global convening and platforms. Who We Are News.